ARCHIVE: Great Lakes Update: S.S. Badger to Clean Up Its Act

In 2008 the Environmental Protection Agency gave the S.S. Badger, a ferry that takes passengers and their cars between Manitowoc, Wisconsin and Ludington, Michigan, four years to stop polluting Lake Michigan. During the trips, the coal powered ferry would dump the coal-ash straight into Lake Michigan. This pollution is harmful to the wildlife living in the lake, people who sell and eat the fish from the lake and communities who drink the Great Lakes water. As we know from my article, “Water, Water…Everywhere?” this impacts a lot of people. S.S. Badger responded to this demand by unsuccessfully implementing solution.

During the 2013 season, S.S. Badger was under much scrutiny for continuing to pollute in Lake Michigan; the EPA fined them. With the 2014 season just a month away, we’re seeing a much more promising attempt by S.S. Badger. A plan was released stating that during the 2014 season the ferry will be outfitted so that the coal-ash is stored onboard during the trip. The entire process will take most of the 2014 year and 2015 will be the first year of the completed project.

You might be thinking, I don’t live anywhere near Lake Michigan, why does where they dispose of their coal-ash matter to me? S.S. Badger began running their service in 1953, as a coal powered machine. That means they’ve been dumping coal-ash into the lake for 60 years (let’s assume that this year the pollution decreases). If you live anywhere with water that connects to Lake Michigan, that water is contaminated as well.

S.S. Badger is not the only source of coal pollution. Coal powered power plants give off over 140 million tons of coal-ash each year. Coal-ash is toxic containing mercury, lead and other metals. Exposure to large amounts of coal-ash raises the chance of being diagnosed with cancer, birth defects and asthma. The good news is that the EPA came out with new emission standards, which will result in the majority of coal-powered plants closing in the next two years.

For areas where there is still a large amount of coal-ash, the EPA came out with research that shows coal-ash can be used in concrete. Exposure to this concrete is not harmful because it is encapsulated. The EPA suggests that this will be sustainable use of coal-ash because not only does it find a place to get rid of the coal-ash but it also strengthens the concrete. Their study shows that concrete is more durable with the addition of coal-ash.

As emission standards become stricter and climate change becomes a higher priority (fingers crossed), individuals and companies will find ways to become more sustainable. In the case of S.S. Badger, creating less pollution will probably bring more business. If sustainability is not what drives you, think about what does, is there a more sustainable way that also benefits you?

I believe this is how sustainability will become more integrated. Individuals and companies don’t have to make changes with the climate or future generations in mind (although you could) instead they should make the changes that make the most sense for them. For example in Kansas, typically a conservative state without sustainability in mind, companies have switched over to renewable energies because it saves them money. Yes, in the long run switching to more sustainable practice does save money, but don’t have me convince you try it for yourself. Make a switch that works for you and ask yourself, was the change for the better and do you think it is a change you can stick with? If so great! If not maybe try something else.

It’s hard to change, took the S.S. Badger six years to really dedicate itself to changing their ways. Sustainability is not a change that will happen over night or even a year for that matter. It is a habit that takes time to dedicate yourself to. If we all made changes for a more sustainable habits, we’d all be sailing a little easier.

The Sustainable Side of Beer

The thing about beer is that even if you drink beer brewed in or near your town and you know their getting their hops from in state, the brewing process is not very sustainable. It takes about five barrels of water to produce one barrel of beer according to MillerCoors, who by the way are working on reducing their water use so that it only takes three barrels to produce one barrel of beer. In addition to the water use, the excess grain from brewing often goes to waste. This is all before the transportation involved to bring the hops and barley to the brewery and then the beer to bars and stores to be sold.

So what do we do, stop drinking beer and switch over to rice based alcohols? No, of course not, we figure out how to make beer sustainably. There are lots of breweries across the country doing some very cool things to make sure that they are using fewer resources to produce their beer and that their waste is being used in an efficient way.

New Belgium out of Fort Collins, Colorado where their brewery is 100% wind powered are also dedicated to reducing the amount of water used to brew their beer. Their goal for 2015 was to produce a little less than a barrel of beer (.85 barrels) with three barrels of water. That would be a huge improvement from the five it takes to produce beer now. They have also done lots of research to figure out the best way to package their beer. New Belgium’s results show that any container that can be recycled is best, glass bottles or cans – of course that means their drinkers have to recycle ☺.

During the brewing process, one of the first steps is called “Mashing” or “Mash”. This involves mashing or crushing the kernels of barley and hops so that all the nutrients and sugars are extracted and moved on to the next step. During this “Mashing” step, the leftover of the grains are called spent grain. Because all the nutrients have been taken out of the grain for the beer, spent grain is often seen as waste. In order to reduce their waste and find a purpose for the spent grain, breweries are working with farmers and bakeries.

Standing Stone Brewing Company in Ashland, Oregon has their own farm and found that they could use the spent grain to feed animals such as chickens. They are also thinking longer term by using the spent grain as a type of fertilizer in their “grain beds” that will be used to produce fruits and vegetables for the brewery in a few years.

On the other side of the country in Walland, Tennessee the Brewery at Blackberry Farm uses their spent grain to feed all the animals on the farm including chickens, pigs, llamas and sheep. This brewery is part of a larger resort and so the animals on the farm help produce fresh eggs, wool and meat for visitors of the resort. This system that Brewery at Blackberry Farm is using is a great sustainable system that not only recycles and uses all their spent grain but then it produces high quality local products.

Other breweries are donating their spent grain to farms in their areas to use for feed, some breweries found bakeries that can grind the spent grain further and use it as a flour in some of their baking. The exciting part is that finding purposes for spent grain is a recent development in brewing and it seems like it is catching on.

Maybe you’ve heard of or tried Alaskan Brewing Company (ABC) beer out of Juneau, Alaska – I highly recommend the Alaskan Amber if you like dark beers, it’s the smoothest beer you’ll ever try- they have developed the technology to power their brewery from spent grain. ABC learned early on that because of their remote location they could ship the spent grain to the Pacific Northwest for use at farms, which they have done for about 20 years, or find another use for it. In 2012 they introduced a boiler that runs on spent grain. With the introduction of this one of a kind boiler they estimate that they can reduce their oil use by over 65%. Since it takes more oil to distribute their beer, reducing the oil used in the brewing process helps their overall carbon footprint.

All these developments in improving beer brewing show that there really are unlimited possibilities in how to reduce carbon footprints and add sustainability into any business plan. Drinking beer is not something most of us probably plan on giving up, for sustainable reasons at least, but this shows that we don’t have to change our habits. We just need to think about it in a different way, a more creative way, so that we can continue doing what we love without damaging our planet or resources.

ARCHIVE: Great Lakes Update: Midsummer Status Report

This post is originally from July 2014. 

There’s nothing better than spending on summer day on the water. In the Midwest that means a kayak trip in Lake Superior, day sailing on Lake Michigan, fishing on Lake Huron, canoeing on Lake Erie and scuba diving in Lake Ontario. So what’s being done to care for the Great Lakes?

Earlier this summer President Obama proposed a five-year plan that improves protection of the Great Lakes. This plan will continue to research and solve problems such as, invasive species, loss of habitat, runoff that causes blue green algae and will consider how climate change plays a role in these issues. Accepting that climate change is playing a factor shows lots of growth, while we think about how to solve these complex problems. In addition to this plan, the Environmental Protection Agency continues to fund over 2,000 programs at non-profits and universities that address these same issues.

Just a few weeks ago the Illinois legislation voted on the issue of micro beads in cosmetics such as shampoos and body washes. Legislation, environmentalist and the manufacturers agree that the plastic beads need to be phased out. These plastic beads get washed down our drains and end up in our lakes and water systems and in the bellies of fish, birds and other wildlife. These beads are just the tip of the iceberg, after discovering the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and the amount of waste in the oceans; research teams took a closer look in the Great Lakes and found that the plastic found in Lake Erie was twice as much as the average amount of plastic found in the oceans, per square mile. Phasing out cosmetics that use plastic micro beads will help reduce this pollution.

Using a penny to scale, this is the size of the plastic micro beads found in the Great Lakes. 

Back in February, Beacon readers learned about the Great Lakes Water Compactand it’s dedication to conserving the water and resources of the Great Lakes. Counties and cities within the Great Lakes water basin, areas where the water naturally drains into, are permitted to use, drink and draw water from the Great Lakes. The city of Waukesha lies outside this basin and last summer requested permission to draw water from Lake Michigan for their residents. Their current supply is not only running low but also becoming contaminated.

Right now the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is going over the application. All eight states and both Canadian providences also need to approve of the application. One major reason why many governors and states are not in favor of this application because Waukesha does not only intend for this water to supply current residents, but also for residents as the city expands, about 45% more water than they use now.

For the last few decades, the biggest issue around the Great Lakes is water levels. The last decade or so has seen the lowest levels in years, but this year Midwesterners are seeing a rise in water levels. Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron are all up about a foot higher than they were last summer and Lakes Ontario and Erie are up a half a foot from last summer. Reasons for this include the large amount of snow and ice cover this last winter and heavy rains this summer. This rise in water levels not only gives lake lovers more to appreciate, but it’s also good for the cargo ships, fishermen, tourism among other industries.

Environmental problems are complex, there is not one simple answer and none of these issues are solved over night, but taking victories like the ones mentioned in this article show that solutions do exist. It’s great news that the government is working on plans to protect our natural resources and it’s even better news that organizations and nonprofits are working on it too. Many of these programs have volunteer opportunities allowing anyone to get involved. Plastic pollution in our lakes is an issue you can tackle the next time you go shopping. When you purchase shampoo, body wash or lotions read the label carefully to make sure they’re using salts or organic materials such as fruit seeds or pits. As the summer continues to get hotter, hopefully anyway, we’ll need to be mindful of our water usage to help conserve the water in the Great Lakes. We’re getting closer with each victory, stay positive folks!

ARCHIVE: Henry Ford and Thomas Edison discussing the possibility of collaborating on an electric vehicle.Are Electric Vehicles Finally Getting the Attention They Deserve?

This post is originally from June 2014

Earlier in June, Tesla Motors, electric car company, released all their patents on designs and technology to the public. All the business folks out there were probably shocked at this decision; CEO Elon Musk must be crazy for giving up his greatest competitive advantage. I think the move is brilliant! It’s not like everyone is going to stop what they’re doing and start creating and developing the latest and greatest electric car. Maybe a lawnmower company uses it and creates an electric emissions free lawnmower or a boating company uses it to make a powerful and clean speedboat that leaves a great wake but no pollution in the lakes. Electric cars, it sounds futuristic, but electric cars have been around for a long time and at this point should just be thought of as another type of car on the road instead of a completely new breed.

In 1835 Thomas Davenport, a blacksmith out of Vermont, created what is known and considered to be the first electric motor with the capability of being mass-produced. Later in 1895, A. L. Ryker developed an electric tricycle and in 1891 William Morrison built an electric vehicle that could carry six people. As roadways developed in the early 1900s there was more demand for vehicles that could travel the longer distances from city to city. Charles Kettering invented an electric starter in 1912. Prior to this invention, electric vehicles required a hand crank to start them. Around the same time, Henry Ford designed and created an internal combustion engine vehicle for mass-production. Due to recently discovered oil reserves electric vehicles cost three times the amount as gasoline cars. The Great Depression followed making it difficult for electric vehicles to gain any kind of ground.

Henry Ford and Thomas Edison discussing the possibility of collaborating on an electric vehicle.

The 1960s saw one of the largest political actions toward environmentalism and sustainability. A company called Battronic Truck Company built an electric truck that could reach 25 mph for 62 miles carrying 2,500 pounds. In 1975 the United States Postal Service bought over 350 electric vehicles to use for delivery. These vehicles could go between 40 and 50 miles per hour with a range of 40 miles, probably a good distance for vehicles that are usually used around one or two towns. This support from the government helped encourage motor companies and entrepreneurs to create better and more efficient vehicles.

General Motors attempted an electric car and succeeded in the early 1990s with the EV1. They tried to include all the latest luxuries cars had to offer, while have the car hold a charge for enough miles to make the car still practical. They did not sell the car but instead leased so that GM would still own the car. From accounts shared in the documentary “Who Killed the Electric Car”, people loved the car. There were more than 1000 EV1s around the west coast during the 1990s and early 2000s. It seemed like GM created a car that was not only socially responsible but one that people also loved to drive. So why didn’t the EV1 take off? GM decided that the cost to produce the EV1 was too high to mass-produce and actually sell the car. GM collected all of the EV1s taking them to Arizona to crush them. The popularity of the EV1 shows that electric cars are not a trend but are cars that appeal to all types of people.

Regardless of whether or not you believe in climate change or what role humans have in contributing, the price of oil will continue to rise, while the quantity of oil will continue to decline. Electric cars are not only a way to give the United States energy independence, but also save the country billions of dollars on importing oil or drilling and searching for new reserves. Tesla Motors developed incredible technology and instead of using it to better one company, it can be used to better the world. Electric cars are not a new idea, but the idea of sharing technologies and innovations so that society can benefit, I would say that’s revolutionary and it’s a bandwagon we should all climb aboard.

Nature’s Bread and Butter

Thinking back to my time at school in Madison, I always talk about the Saturday morning farmers market. It’s tradition to stop at the Stella’s Bakery stand, and start the tour of the farmers market with a round loaf of spicy cheesy bread. It’s impossible to miss and almost everyone is digging into their bag of steamy hot bread as they make their way around the Capital Square. Although the cheesy bread is almost everyone’s favorite, some also enjoy a warm and fresh baguette from Stella’s. While some people want big houses and fancy cars all he would like when he’s made it big is to have a fresh baguette delivered to his house each morning. I thought about it – that sounds lovely. Who doesn’t love to walk slowly past a bakery or sandwich shop just to smell the fresh bread?

My family will often stop a local bakery for a loaf of multigrain, potato bread, or cinnamon swirl bread- best French toast you’ll ever have. The biggest part of eating sustainably is eating locally and supporting bakers and small businesses in your area. Since I am a lover of both food and specifically fresh bread, I decided to check out what some bakers are doing across the country to bring us these delicious tastes and smells while also thinking about the environment.

In New York City there are over 2,000 bakeries but not all of them dedicate themselves to sustainable practices. The Birdbath Neighborhood Green Bakery opened in 2005 by owner Maury Rubin, also owner of City Bakery, with the premise of being openly environmentally conscious. Both of Rubin’s bakeries use only local, seasonal and organic ingredients in their foods. At City Bakery and Birdbath all deliveries are made by bike and there are absolutely no plastic water bottles allowed. More and more businesses are working sustainability into their business plans with the idea that they may initially lose money in the process, but Birdbath proves that you can commit to sustainability without losing a dollar and gaining a whole lot of respect.

Across the country in Portland Oregon, Pearl Bakery recycles everything from the toner cartridge in their printer to glass bottles to the bottle caps. Their pastries and breads are made with flour from small farms and mills in the region that practice sustainable agriculture. Not only are their homemade baked goods local, but also the organic coffee that they serve is roasted weekly from Batdorf and Bronson just next door in Washington. The Pearl shows great commitment to recycling, as their employees collect recyclable materials outside the shop to bring to the recycling center in the community. They also ‘recycle’ their food waste through the Cloudburst Recycling program, a composting program in Portland. Composting at an individual restaurant or in a home can be difficult especially in an urban area because of raccoons and other pests. Contributing to a city composting center is a relatively easy way to get rid of food waste because they will often pickup your food scraps- seems easier then discreetly getting the dog to come over to your lap.

Located in downtown Chicago, the West Town Bakery and Diner creates everything from freshly crafted breads to professionally done wedding cakes to personalized cupcakes. They’re doing it with all natural and organic products. From within the Chicagoland area, West Town gets their ingredients, fruits, veggies, chocolates, nuts and flour from local vendors and farmers. They also care a lot about their customers by offering options such as gluten, nut, sugar or soy free. Deliveries are made using hybrid vehicles and when it’s time to clean up they use natural products without chemicals in their kitchen and diner.

You can smell it now: The bread rising, the sugar browning and fruits caramelizing. Oh how we love a good bakery we can depend on for our favorites and new treats. Everything tastes better when you know it was homemade and especially when it’s made with ingredients and integrity you can trust.